So, what do the new regulations say about RCDs and how can designers make sure they stay compliant and carry out proper electrical design, installations and assessments? For downloadable guides on the new regulations and information on other key areas of BS7671:2018 visit our 18th Edition Hub.
Types of RCD
Regulation 531.3.3 is new to the regs book but the principle of this regulation is not new at all. For example, regulation 132.8 (17th and 18th editions) requires protective devices to operate at values of current, voltage and time that are suitably related to the characteristic of the circuits and possibilities of danger. Four types of RCD are mentioned in regulation 531.3.3 which also requires the appropriate RCD to be selected from those four options – Type AC, Type A, Type F, or Type B. Each RCD type has different operating characteristics to suit particular applications – including those where DC components and varying frequencies are present.
The requirements here are clearly stated. Designers and installers must select and specify the correct device for each circuit or item of equipment being protected, and that choice must be made through a proper technical assessment.
There are many elements to consider in order to select the appropriate type of RCD, and so failing to factor all of the relevant circumstances and guidance from within BS7671 into a design assessment is very risky.
Putting this into perspective, the term RCD is used within the wiring regulations more than 250 times and the definition of RCD includes RCCB, RCBO, CBR and MRCD. Clearly, it’s essential to understand the full picture before making device selections.
Avoiding Unwanted Tripping
Regulation 531.3.2 is another ‘new’ regulation that is intended to aid designers make better design decisions. This supports the principles of Regulation 314.1 (17th and 18th editions) which requires every installation to be divided into the number of circuits required to avoid danger and hazards caused by unwanted tripping of RCDs – a single fault should not cause the loss of power to groups of circuits
Regulation 531.3.2 gives designers two options to use to avoid unwanted tripping of RCDs from earth leakage (PE current) during normal operation.
Option 1 Divide the installation into individual circuits, each using its own 30mA RCBO
Option 2 Design the installation so that the PE current cannot be more than 30% of the rated trip current i.e. no more that 9mA for a 30mA RCD. But how easy is that to achieve?
Individual RCBOs provide a solution that also complies with Regulation 314.1 to avoid danger and hazards caused by unwanted tripping of RCDs. A single fault should not cause the loss of power to groups of circuits. The safety of the people within buildings can only be ensured when power continuity is maintained to healthy circuits by the initial design.
What sections of the 18th Edition refer to RCDs?
(415.1) 30mA RCDs are used for additional protection
(531.3.3) for general purposes Type AC RCDs may be used
(722.531.2) for EV chargers Type A or B are required
(710.418.104.22.168)in some medical locations Type A or B are required – depending on fault currents
(721.415.1) installations in caravans require RCDs to break all live poles including the neutral
*This article is for information purposes. Designers and installers should obtain their own copy of BS7671:2018 and follow the requirements and recommendations in the 18th Edition of the IET Wiring Regulations. This article has been provided by Dave Enefer, Devices Manager for Electrium. For more content from Electrium visit their dedicated 18th Edition website.